What Causes Male Infertility? Let's Talk About It

last month8 min read
Last updated: Mar 17 2023

The TTC journey is a complicated one already, but what happens when male infertility becomes part of the conversation? Let’s have it together.

male infertility

Trying to conceive can be an emotional rollarcoaster – for both partners.

But what happens when you find out male infertility is now part of the equation?

We know how PCOS, fibroids, and even endometriosis can play a part, but what about low sperm count?

Male infertility is a complicated condition, and it can be difficult to diagnose and treat.

Still, that it’s the primary cause in one third of infertile couples means it’s definitely worth talking about.

You’re not alone.

We’re having the conversation.

In this article: 📝

  • What is male infertility?
  • What is the most common cause of male infertility?
  • What are the signs of infertility in males?
  • How does a man get checked for fertility?
  • How do you fix male infertility?
  • How do you help someone cope with infertility?

What is male infertility?

Male infertility is defined as a man’s inability to cause a pregnancy after one year of having unprotected intercourse.

It can be caused by a variety of factors and is divided into two types:

  • Primary infertility: When a man has never achieved a pregnancy
  • Secondary infertility: When a man has been able to achieve a pregnancy in the past but can no longer do so.

As for the common causes?


It can range from low sperm count and poor sperm motility (movement) to abnormal sperm shape and even hormonal imbalances.

In some cases, the cause of male infertility is completely unknown.

What we do know is that almost 10% of men are infertile.

So, let’s get into it.

What is the most common cause of male infertility?

Just like women, there are a host of risk factors that can contribute to male infertility.

Age naturally plays a significant role with men over 40 are more likely to experience infertility.

But then so does lifestyle choices, environment, and medical history.

So, what causes male infertility?

Let’s look at the possibilities in detail:

1. Health and Lifestyle

Unsurprisingly smoking and excessive alcohol consumption have both been linked with increasing infertility risk.

In particular, studies have shown excessive drinking decreases testosterone and sperm production.

Same goes for anabolic steroids.

2. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Men who have had a history of STIs are more likely to experience fertility problems.

STDs like gonorrhea, chlamydia, and herpes can cause significant inflammation and impair sperm quality if left untreated.

3. Medical history

Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, can lead to fertility issues.

But there’s also the case for autoimmune disorders and hormonal imbalances or pituitary gland problems.

Men who have undergone prior surgeries, such as a vasectomy or testicular surgery, may also experience infertility.

4. Environmental factors

Exposure to certain industrial chemicals or heavy metals can all play havoc with sperm count as can X-rays or radiation.

Even adverse enviromental conditions like heat exposure and noise pollution can have an impact.



What are the signs of infertility in males?

Male infertility usually does not have any visible symptoms.

But there are some signs to watch out for if TTC is becoming a struggle:

  • A decrease in sex drive
  • Difficulty achieving an erection
  • Pain or swelling in the testicles
  • An abnormally large volume of semen during ejaculation
  • A decrease in the size of the testicles

It is important to speak to a doctor if you are experiencing any of the male infertility symptoms mentioned above, as they can help diagnose the underlying cause.

How does a man get checked for fertility?

Diagnosing male infertility typically begins with a physical examination and a medical history review.

Your GP may also order tests to assess the quality of sperm and semen.

These can include semen analysis, which is used to evaluate sperm count, sperm motility, and shape.

Hormone tests can also be conducted to measure hormones that are essential for sperm production.

In some cases, a doctor may recommend a scrotal ultrasound to examine the testicles and surrounding structures to help identify any abnormalities that may be causing infertility.

Lastly, genetic testing may also be ordered to diagnose potential congenital or inherited syndromes.

How do you fix male infertility?

Treatment options for male infertility largely depend on the underlying cause with lifestyle changes, fertility medications, and surgery all providing promising avenues.

Some of the most common treatments you could expect to be offered include:

  • Fertility drugs: These are used to increase sperm production and are typically taken orally.
  • Surgical treatment: This may involve correcting a physical blockage or varicocele (an enlargement of the veins in the scrotum).
  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies: The most common treatment course for male infertility. ART involves collecting sperm from the male and combining it with an egg in a laboratory setting.

Alternative treatments are also on the table, whether it’s reducing stress, improving diet, and increasing physical activity.

The route you and your partner take could look very different to another couple but is no less ripe for success.

It all depends on the results of the medical tests.

Do fertility drugs for men work?

Fertility drugs for men work by increasing testosterone levels and stimulating sperm production.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and clomiphene are the most common medications but there are others.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists, as well as aromatase inhibitors can all be used to reduce the production of estrogen.

This can help to increase testosterone levels and improve sperm production.

What type of infertility needs surgery?

Surgical treatments for male infertility may be recommended if a physical abnormality or obstruction is preventing the sperm from being released.

These procedures can help to remove a blockage or repair any damage that is causing infertility.

A name fit for an action blockbuster, testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is used to treat men with azoospermia, a condition in which there is no sperm in the ejaculate.

It involves surgically removing sperm from the testicles and is (thankfully) done under general anesthesia.

Varicocele repair is another surgical option reserved for men with, you guessed it, varicocele – a condition in which the veins become enlarged and twisted

This procedure can help to improve sperm production and quality by repairing the veins in the scrotum that are causing the varicocele.

Which ART technique is used in male infertility?

ART involves the retrieval of sperm from the testicles and the use of a laboratory technique called in vitro fertilization (IVF).

During IVF, the retrieved sperm is combined with an egg in a petri dish and the resulting embryo is then transferred into the woman’s uterus.

Other ART treatments include intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which involves injecting a single sperm directly into an egg, and assisted hatching, which involves creating a small opening in the outer layer of the embryo to help it implant in the uterus.

Can male infertility be treated naturally?

When it comes to overcoming male infertility naturally, quitting smoking, reducing alcohol consumption, and exercising regularly are all solid places to start.

Herbal supplements such as ginseng and maca root may also be used to increase sperm production and motility.

And yes, there is suggestions that acupuncture might improve fertility in men by increasing blood flow to the reproductive organs.

But as for improving sperm quality?

That’s still yet to be sufficiently studied.

Men may also benefit from taking zinc supplements since zinc is essential for sperm production and motility.

And let us not overlook folic acid when jumping on the supplement train

But while folic acid and zinc has been shown to be important for sperm health and development, studies suggest they’re limited in the infertility reversing stakes.

The truth is, though there are some causes of male infertility that can be reversed, often the most recommended treatment is ART.

How do you help someone cope with infertility?

Dealing with male infertility can be difficult for both partners in a couple.

It’s important to remember that infertility is a (sometimes mysterious) medical condition and not a reflection on either partner.

Communicating openly with one another about any feelings that may surface is the best step you can take as you move through your options.

Because there are many treatment options available.

And while male infertility is complicated, a doctor or fertility specialist can be your greatest ally.

They can provide individualized advice on treatment options and help you find the best path forward objectively.

Finally, take time for self-care.

It doesn’t matter if it’s yoga, meditation, or spending time in nature, taking time to focus on yourself can help reduce stress and provide a sense of peace and balance.

You’ve got this.

You both do.

And remember, a supporting voice or reassurance from someone who has been where you are is only a tap away on Peanut.